In chapter 11, they discuss how the world religions explain the world’s evil. The explanations are called theodicy witch translates to justifying the ways of god. Theodicies derive from the fact that human suffering and evil must happen and there meanings. The world’s religions have various ways of describing the evil. Evil takes a toll on the human body and the spirit that’s why there is a demand for theodicies. In primal societies were the have yet to identify self-individuals theorist believe the they suffered less from personal anomie or misfortune because of their “mystical participation” in the ongoing life of the tribe and of nature itself. Religions of the biblical tradition -Judaism, Christianity, and Islam- believe that the evil or suffering will end in the next world or heaven. In centuries prior to the Christian era, Israel began to look to the intervention of a supernatural figure, called the Son of Man. Thus came the this-worldly eschatology. This theodicy has a distinctive characteristic, millenarian-relating to or believing in Christian millenarianism. They believe that justice is coming. To name a theodicy to describe the main world religions, Christianity, Islam, and certain schools of Mahayana Buddhism, is one that recompense the evil in life and in human suffering in a life after death in a blessed heaven or paradise. Next we have the Dualist theodicy, all evil and suffering are to be ascribed to powerful, satanic forces that created and now rule this world. Next we have the Karma-Samsara theodicy. This theodicy describes the wheel of life and reincarnation; each soul passes through a sequence of bodies. Monotheistic theodicies express; suffering as recompense for sin, Suffering as a Test, mystery of God’s sovereignty, theodicy of protest, free will defense and process theodicy. Witch all explain human suffering and evil.