In this week’s reading we are reading about the Foundations of Moral Action. In the first section of the reading it is about the philosophical ethics. There are three different types of traditions that are very similar to each other. The first one is deontological ethics, this is viewed as a necessity. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant best describe this ethic. He basically uses the saying “Do unto others as others do unto you”. The second one is teleological which states, doing for the greater good for a greater number. This one is mostly used for Utilitarianism. Utilitarian ethic is for the forms of moral behaviors by individuals in order to secure overall happiness in the greatest number of people. The third way is virtue ethics. This one applies strict utilitarianism. A good example is from the philosopher Aristotle. Aristotle feels that just like our health it should be the goal for all individuals. The big section is on the Norms and Sources of Moral Authority. Natural laws are major when it comes to some people ethical and moral decisions. Cosmic Laws in China directs the natural world. The term Dao, meaning pathway, is used to describe the ethical path that you are suppose to follow. Mencius was the moral philosopher that developed the idealistic theory. He was convinced that if humans were to follow their natural feelings then we will be honorable, proper, and good. Natural Law in the Roman Catholic we are taught that humans follow their essential nature. St. Thomas Aquinas says that God’s divine plan is upon our own natural reason. St. Thomas remarks that law is the rule of humans that acts as the view of the common good. Aquinas felt that with his teachings that humans would use practical moral guidance. The Divine Ethics Command has three religious sources and norms; Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, that give obligations and comes from commands from a messenger. The Jewish Law and Ethics reveled that God will be the ultimate source and sanction of law and moral. For Islamic Ethics and Laws have a deep sense of Divine Law that was prescribed by God.