In this week’s reading we are talking about Theodicy: Encountering Evil. In the first section it is talking about the demand for Theodicy. The first sentence starts off saying how suffering and evil have tortured and oppressed our human body and the human spirit. A theodicy basically does is place our own life that is driven by suffering and a threat to chaos. In Buddhism and Christianity have complex doctrines that represent an unsophisticated of an ordinary people. An example of a theodicy is when a person explains a drought of judgment of God. The next section is about the mystical participation of theodicy. In this section individuals are to think of themselves as a “typical case”. Peter Berger speaks that we are not as unique but rather participation and identification with society. This type of theodicy is common in primal societies. Theodicies of participation are present in forms of mystical that emphasizes absorption. A Future, This-Worldly Theodicy is next. It is easy to put religion with biblical sense that the belief of evils and sufferings of this life will be forgotten in the future life. We do know that this theodicy is a dominant one from at least of the two biblical faiths. Millenarian form of theodicy is compensation for the suffering. This is postponed until the future but is not some other heaven. The last big important section is monotheistic theodicies. For Western monotheism, the issue with theodicy is that it is sharply put by philosopher David Hume: “Is God willing to prevent evil but not able? He is able, but not willing (Livingston 2009)?” Four theodicies are suggested in Job which are; Suffering as Recompense for Sin, Suffering as a Test and as a Necessary Condition of “Soul-Making”, A Theodicy of Submission, Theodicy of Protest, The Free Will Defense, and Process Theodicy. The main ones are Suffering for Sin, Theodicy of Protest, and Suffering as a Test. Suffering for Sin was the traditional answer for the book Deuteronomy. The explanation of suffering that it is a challenge by the whole movement, nevertheless it is perfect for the popular appeal. Suffering as a Test is the balance of the good and evil with also suffering. In Job it explains that suffering is a test or trail of faith. An example is when God is allows Satan to make him allow the manner of evil to be heaped on God. The last one is Theodicy of Protest. These protestors are people that reject God’s saying but then again they do not. For them God allows too much suffering into people’s lives. They denied the notion that God is limited, they say that God is just holding his breath instead of doing something about it.